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Interactive signal transduction pathways

Akt Pathway

The Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in the mediation of protein synthesis, metabolism,
proliferation and cell cycle progression. It may be referred to as a ‚ prosurvival‚ pathway.

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AMPK Pathway

AMPK signaling pathway plays an important role in the cellular reponse to low levels of available ATP,
often caused by stresses such as heat shock, ischemia or hypoxia.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis is a physiological process for cell death that is critical during ageing and development.
It may also be referred to as cell. Apoptosis can be triggered by events both inside and
outside of the cell.

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Estrogen Pathway

Estrogen is a steroid hormone that is responsible for the regulation of growth, differentiation and
function of the reproductive system. Estrogen signaling is often dysregulated in breast cancer and
osteoporosis.

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Hedgehog Pathway

The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway is involved in development. It induces cellular proliferation and
morphogenesis in developing tissues and organs. Hh signaling has been implicated in cancer.

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Insulin Pathway

Signaling through the insulin pathway is fundamental for the regulation of intracellular glucose
levels. This pathway can become dysregulated in diabetes.

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JAK-STAT Pathway

The JAK-STAT signaling pathway has several roles, including the control of cell proliferation and
hematopoiesis. It is the main signal transduction cascade from cytokine receptors.

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MAPK Pathway

The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway evokes an intracellular signaling cascade in
response to extracellular stimuli such as heat and stress. It can influence cell division,
metabolism and survival.

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mTOR Pathway

mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that nucleates at multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2.
Signaling by these complexes regulates cell growth, proliferation and survival.

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NF-κB Pathway

NF-κB signaling plays an important role in inflammation, the innate and adaptive immune response
and stress. Dysregulated signaling can occur in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

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Notch Pathway

The Notch pathway is involved in determination of cell fate, regulation of pattern formation and
other developmental settings. Disrupted signaling can cause developmental defects and a range
of adult pathologies.

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p53 Pathway

p53 signaling plays an important role in the co-ordination of the cellular response different types
of stress such as DNA damage and hypoxia. The downstream signals lead to apoptosis, senescence
and cell cycle arrest.

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TGF-b Pathway

The TGF-b signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of growth and proliferation of cells along
with migration, differentiation and apoptosis.

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Toll-like Receptor Pathway

TLR signaling is involved in the cellular response to threatening molecules such as bacteria and viruses.
It results in an inflammatory and immmunological response.

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VEGF Pathway

VEGF signaling pathway is involved in embryonic vascular development (vasculogenesis) and in the
formation of new blood vessel (angiogenesis). It also induces cell migration, proliferation and survival.

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Wnt Pathway

The Wnt pathway is involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation in adult tissues and also
during embryogenesis. Disturbances within the pathway may lead to the formation of tumors and
promote metastasis.

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